Periodontology is clinical oral hygiene (ultrasonic cleaning of tartar, plaque, nicotine deposits and polishing with soda – air-flow), curettage, treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis, motivation for personal oral hygiene.

Gingivitis (Gum Disease)

Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) occurs with the appearance of tissue fluid / exudate / tissue damage / alteration / proliferation . Gingivitis is primary when it occurs under the influence of local factors (infectious, thermal, chemical, etc.) and secondary when it is a sign of a common disease.
Catarrhal gingivitis occurs under the influence of dental plaque, tartar, sharp edges of broken crowns, roots, improperly made fillings and dentures. Symptomatic catarrhal gingivitis occurs in a number of blood, infectious, allergic and other common diseases. Gingivitis is acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is manifested by mild itching, pain when touching the gingival papillae, bleeding with increased salivation. Chronic inflammation is less severe. Less common is purulent gingivitis, usually as a bacterial complication, with swelling, redness, sores and abscesses, swelling of regional lymph nodes.
Ulcerative gingivitis is common. It has an infectious origin. Acute ulcerative gingivitis begins with nocturnal pain of a neuralgic nature and the appearance of ulcers. The papillae of the gums necrotize and become covered with gray-yellow deposits. The body temperature rises, the patients have dropped out. Symptomatic ulcerative gingivitis is chronic, with recurrences. Most often it develops in the course of a viral disease. Hypertrophic gingivitis occurs mainly at a young age, in pregnant women, in epileptics. It is manifested by swelling of the gums. Gradually, small nodules form, smooth and soft, which bleed easily. In the later stage of the disease, the nodules thicken and do not bleed. Treatment of gingivitis begins with the removal of local irritants, especially tartar. In catarrhal inflammation apply antiseptics, vitamins, suitable rinse aids, toothpastes. Purulent and ulcerative gingivitis require specialized dental treatment, which includes anesthesia, cleaning of tartar, medical treatment of ulcers, dressings, application of antibacterial and anti-fungal drugs.

Periodontitis (Gum Infection)

Periodontitis is a common disease of the musculoskeletal system of the teeth. Disease changes include tissue complex (gingival papilla, gingival margin – marginal periodontium, alveolar part, cementum of the tooth and the tooth itself). The most common causes of periodontitis are long-term traumatic factors: abundant accumulation of tartar, improperly made fillings, crowns, bridges and other dentures, impaired contact between teeth, improper position of the teeth (malposition) and others. In such conditions, it is possible to injure the periodontium from food that has entered the interdental space. Localized periodontitis covers individual teeth. Changes in the tissues of the support-holding apparatus are unilateral or limited in place of the acting factor. Very often the action of the local factor is combined with the traumatic action of tartar. The gum recedes and exposes the root. Sometimes the root is exposed to the top. The inflamed crown is sunken because it is left without a bone base. The gingival margin is thickened. There is deposited tartar in the gingival pocket and overgrown granulation tissue. The X-ray shows a unilateral or bilateral examination of the interdental bone septa with the simultaneous formation of a bone pocket. There are no changes in the other teeth.
Generalized periodontitis is a serious problem in dental practice. It occurs at any age. Reddening of the gingival papillae, which often bleed, exposing the tooth roots. At a more advanced stage, the gums secrete purulent secretions with an unpleasant odor, the teeth become unstable, chewing becomes difficult. A fan-shaped thinning of the teeth is observed. The treatment of periodontitis is performed by a dentist.

Tartar (Plaque)

Tartar is a mineralized dental plaque. Dental plaque is a soft amorphous deposit on tooth surfaces. When the plaque is in small quantities at the beginning of its formation, it is colorless and invisible to the eye. Tartar is rare in children and more common in adults. It is not pathogenic in itself, but its rough surface is an ideal place for the retention of pathogenic microorganisms. Its porous structure makes it a reservoir for toxic bacterial products, harmful to neighboring gingival structures. That is why methods for its removal have been sought since ancient times. According to its location it is divided into:

Supragingival tartar is observed on the clinical crown of the teeth, around the gingival margin. Its color is different – from light yellow to dark brown. It is darker in smokers and when it has been present for a long time. It has a softer texture and is easier to clean than the undercoat.

Subgingival tartar is difficult to detect even on clinical examination. It is located deep in the gingival pocket, has a serum origin and is quite difficult to clean. Its dark color can be seen through the thin gingival margin. Regular cleaning of tartar (by a dentist) and preventing the accumulation of plaque (effective brushing of teeth) is a guarantee of healthy teeth, fresh breath and a charming smile.